References for electrical stimulation and cancer

This first article is from the American Cancer Society which is discussing the potential benefits of TENS which is a type of electrical stimulation used for pain management. Note that they have no issue with the safety of placing an electrical stimulus on an active cancer patient.

http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/manualhealingandphysicaltouch/transcutaneous-electrical-nerve-stimulation

This is a case series on the use of NMES on head and neck cancer patients s/p chemo XRT and surgery
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3396583/

In an article in an oncology journal entitled Electrotherapy; Enlightening Modern MedicineLancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1060 The authors, Hills and Stebbing provide a nice review of the work done in using electrical stimulation to treat cancer and the following is a direct excerpt from their article:

“The technique involves the use of electrical fields, delivered through a non-invasive transducer array patch placed directly on the skin above the tumour, to alternate tumour cell polarity, thereby causing the physical disruption of the cell membrane and apoptosis. The treatment is delivered through a non-invasive, insulated transducer array patch. Electrical current is not delivered directly to the tissue, but the patch generates an artificial and alternating electric field within the tumour. The results of a trial in patients with treatment-resistant brain tumours showed a better quality of life and a lower frequency of side-effects in individuals receiving tumour-treating-fields therapy than in those receiving chemotherapy, serving as the basis for FDA approval for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme in 2011. Another study of the efficacy of low-frequency low-intensity electrotherapy in the treatment of breast-cancer-related arm swelling (lymphoedema) also showed that despite no significant changes in lymphoedema volume, there was significant reduction in pain, heaviness, and tightness, further showing that electrotherapy could at least be used to improve a patient’s quality of life.”

Obviously the FDA does not have a problem with the use of electrotherapy on cancer patients

Please feel free to check out any of the listed references we have provided to further provided evidence that there is not only no risk to cancer patients but actually a potential benefit.

Electrotherapy: enlightening modern medicine.
Hills A, Stebbing J.
Lancet Oncol. 2014 Sep;15(10):1060-1. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70423-1. No abstract available.
PMID: 25186041 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 24808760

The feasibility and acceptability of neuromuscular electrical stimulation to improve exercise performance in patients with advanced cancer: a pilot study.
Windholz T, Swanson T, Vanderbyl BL, Jagoe RT.
BMC Palliat Care. 2014 May 1;13:23. doi: 10.1186/1472-684X-13-23. eCollection 2014.
Erratum in: BMC Palliat Care. 2014;13:33.
PMID: 24808760 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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Select item 24794308

Characterization and management of dermatologic adverse events with the NovoTTF-100A System, a novel anti-mitotic electric field device for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma.
Lacouture ME, Davis ME, Elzinga G, Butowski N, Tran D, Villano JL, DiMeglio L, Davies AM,
Wong ET.
Semin Oncol. 2014 Jun;41 Suppl 4:S1-14. doi: 10.1053/j.seminoncol.2014.03.011. Epub 2014
Mar 19.
PMID: 24794308 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free Article
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Select item 24710791

Impact of Transcutaneous Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive chemoradiation.
Bhatt AD, Goodwin N, Cash E, Bhatt G, Silverman CL, Spanos WJ, Bumpous JM, Potts K,
Redman R, Allison WA, Dunlap NE.
Head Neck. 2014 Apr 7. doi: 10.1002/hed.23708. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 24710791 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 24654762

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for treatment of sarcoma cancer pain.
Loh J, Gulati A.
Pain Manag. 2013 May;3(3):189-99. doi: 10.2217/pmt.13.15.
PMID: 24654762 [PubMed]
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Select item 24439096

Low-level electric current and cancer–a promising, but languishing non-toxic cancer therapy.
Kulsh J.
Explore (NY). 2014 Jan-Feb;10(1):53-4. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2013.10.004. Epub 2013 Oct 17. No abstract available.
PMID: 24439096 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 24396172

Electrical stimulation for reducing trapezius muscle dysfunction in cancer patients: traditional treatment protocols also work.
Charest-Hallée S, Léonard G.
Physiother Can. 2013 Fall;65(4):401-3. doi: 10.3138/ptc.2013-38. No abstract available.
PMID: 24396172 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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Select item 23730818

Low electric field parameters required to induce death of cancer cells.
Shawki MM, Farid A.
Electromagn Biol Med. 2014 Jun;33(2):159-63. doi: 10.3109/15368378.2013.800105. Epub 2013 Jun 3.
PMID: 23730818 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 23729969

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation and exercise for reducing trapezius muscle dysfunction in survivors of head and neck cancer: a case-series report.
Baldwin ER, Baldwin TD, Lancaster JS, McNeely ML, Collins DF.
Physiother Can. 2012 Summer;64(3):317-24. doi: 10.3138/ptc.2011-23O.
PMID: 23729969 [PubMed] Free PMC Article
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Select item 23659608

Tumor treating fields: a new frontier in cancer therapy.
Davies AM, Weinberg U, Palti Y.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 Jul;1291:86-95. doi: 10.1111/nyas.12112. Epub 2013 May 9. Review.
PMID: 23659608 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Select item 23438255

The Use of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) in a Major Cancer Center for the Treatment of Severe Cancer-Related Pain and Associated Disability.
Loh J, Gulati A.
Pain Med. 2013 Feb 25. doi: 10.1111/pme.12038. [Epub ahead of print]
PMID: 23438255 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
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Select item 19387848

Alternating electric fields (TTFields) inhibit metastatic spread of solid tumors to the lungs.
Kirson ED, Giladi M, Gurvich Z, Itzhaki A, Mordechovich D, Schneiderman RS, Wasserman Y, Ryffel B, Goldsher D, Palti Y.
Clin Exp Metastasis. 2009;26(7):633-40. doi: 10.1007/s10585-009-9262-y. Epub 2009 Apr 23.
PMID: 19387848 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE] Free PMC Article
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Select item 18596382

A pilot study with very low-intensity, intermediate-frequency electric fields in patients with locally advanced and/or metastatic solid tumors.
Salzberg M, Kirson E, Palti Y, Rochlitz C.
Onkologie. 2008 Jul;31(7):362-5. doi: 10.1159/000137713. Epub 2008 Jun 24.
PMID: 18596382 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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